Very interesting thread by Hector Martin, where he goes into more detail about the performance of Apple’s NVMe drivers, explains how they work and what challenges he is facing under Asahi Linux.
From the looks of it, under macOS, you can either have fast write speeds or data integrity when it comes to NVMe storage:
As it turns out, macOS cheats. On Linux, fsync() will both flush writes to the drive, and ask it to flush its write cache to stable storage.
So, effectively, Apple’s drive is faster than all the others without cache flushes, but it is more than 3 times slower than a lowly SATA SSD at flushing its cache. Even if all you wrote is a couple of sectors. You pay a huge flush penalty if you do any writes.
macOS doesn’t even seem to try to proactively issue syncs; you can write a file on macOS, fsync() it, wait 5 seconds, issue a hard reboot (e.g. via USB-PD command), and the data is gone. That’s pretty bad.
Not flushing means we cannot guarantee ordering of writes, which means you could end up with actual data corruption in e.g. a database, not just data loss. There’s no good way around this other than doing full flushes.
It is a very long thread, but its worth the read.