IPv6 gets more and more important. I think 2016 will be the year when it get’s adopted on a large scale and finally will start to be mandatory with every new Internet connection — at least in Dual Stack configuration.
My web and DNS servers are available via IPv6 for a while now. There is not much demand (yet) for it, but it’s available for users who wan’t/can use it. Because IPv6 is currently not that widely spread, I hesitated for a long time to put up the effort to configure a proper IPv6 tunnel at home.
Well, I had some spare time on my hands and stumbled upon some interesting sites on the Internet. So let’s go!
Availability of IPv6
It looks like no company is providing native IPv6 access to the Internet — at least on the consumer level or for small business accounts. According to some online publications, Deutsche Telekom has already started their IPv6 rollout in their networking — including their cellular network in Germany. They have supposedly chosen to use Dual Stack1 for the transition period. I say “supposedly” because I use a different provider at home and my T-Mobile cell phone internet access seems to be IPv4 only, so I cannot verify it.
Dual stack where you can; tunnel where you must
There are several tunnel brokers available on the Internet. Sixxs disqualified itself years ago with an extraordinarily arrogant attitude that annoys the hell out of me, so I chose to use Hurricane Electric. This choice really was a no-brainer, as I also use their DNS services for quite some time now and never had any problems.
Let’s dig a tunnel
Firs things first, register with Hurricane Electric and create a tunnel. The creation wizard will show you all required information — like your IPv4 tunnel endpoints and your IPv6 subnet(s). The Ubiquiti EdgeMax Lite router that I use is a quite versatile and powerful little thing. Log in via SSH and start creating the tunnel:
edit interfaces tunnel tun0 set encapsulation sit
set local-ip <Client IPv4 Address>
set remote-ip <Server IPv4 Address>
set address <Client IPv6 Address>
set description "HE.NET IPv6 Tunnel"
set protocols static interface-route6 ::/0 next-hop-interface tun0
You now should be able to ping the server IPv6 address and your tunnel is established.
Configure interfaces and network address
Now configure your internal network. HE will route a /64 prefix to you, so choose an IP address from your new network and assign it to your internal network (usually the ::1 address). Also configure the router to advertise it’s network on the internal interface so that clients can automatically get an IPv6 IP address:
set interfaces ethernet eth1 address '<IPv6 router IP>'
set interfaces ethernet eth1 ipv6 dup-addr-detect-transmits 1
set interfaces ethernet eth1 ipv6 router-advert cur-hop-limit 64
set interfaces ethernet eth1 ipv6 router-advert link-mtu 0
set interfaces ethernet eth1 ipv6 router-advert managed-flag false
set interfaces ethernet eth1 ipv6 router-advert max-interval 300
set interfaces ethernet eth1 ipv6 router-advert other-config-flag false
set interfaces ethernet eth1 ipv6 router-advert prefix '2001:xx:xxxx:xxxx::/64' autonomous-flag true
set interfaces ethernet eth1 ipv6 router-advert prefix '2001:xx:xxxx:xxxx::/64' on-link-flag true
set interfaces ethernet eth1 ipv6 router-advert prefix '2001:xx:xxxx:xxxx::/64' valid-lifetime 2592000
set interfaces ethernet eth1 ipv6 router-advert reachable-time 0
set interfaces ethernet eth1 ipv6 router-advert retrans-timer 0
set interfaces ethernet eth1 ipv6 router-advert send-advert true
Change Default Ports For HTTP GUI and SSH
For security reasons change the service ports for the router’s web UI and SSH access to something else, as your IPv6 IP is reachable from the Internet now! I think this will be the most important thing to think about during the transition to IPv6 — no “security” by IPv4 NAT anymore. Everything is accessible on the Internet — if not properly shielded by a firewall on the router or the asset itself!
set service ssh port 8022
set service gui https-port 8443
Common Useful Address Groups
Set up some groups to make handling of these special address ranges easier in the future:
set firewall group address-group Private-RFC-Ranges description 'RFC 1918 Private Ranges'
set firewall group address-group Private-RFC-Ranges address 10.0.0.0/8
set firewall group address-group Private-RFC-Ranges address 172.16.0.0/12
set firewall group address-group Private-RFC-Ranges address 192.168.0.0/16
set firewall group ipv6-address-group IPv6-FE80 description 'fe80::/10 (aka Link-Local) Network'
set firewall group ipv6-address-group IPv6-FE80 ipv6-network 'fe80::/10'
Enable Hardware Offloading
The EdgeMax Lite router offers hardware offloading, so let’s use it!
set system offload ipsec enable
set system offload ipv4 forwarding enable
set system offload ipv4 vlan enable
set system offload ipv6 forwarding enable
set system offload ipv6 vlan enable
If you are using DSL, it might also be a good idea to enable this
set system offload ipv4 pppoe enable
set system offload ipv6 pppoe disable
Optional: Configure MSS Clamping on DSL connections
Some sites on the Internet have problems with PMTU discovery, so it is best to clamp the MSS manually. For PPPoE users, this command will ‘fix’ connectivity to remote sites where ICMP is blocked, and PMTU is broken:
set firewall options mss-clamp interface-type all
set firewall options mss-clamp mss 1452
set firewall options mss-clamp6 interface-type all
set firewall options mss-clamp6 mss 1412
Configuring the firewall
Last but not least, define a set of firewall rules to make sure you are safe and sound:
set firewall ipv6-name HE-To-LAN default-action drop
set firewall ipv6-name HE-to-LAN description 'HE to LAN'
set firewall ipv6-name HE-to-LAN rule 1 action accept
set firewall ipv6-name HE-to-LAN rule 1 description 'Drop non-related incoming IPv6'
set firewall ipv6-name HE-to-LAN rule 1 state established enable
set firewall ipv6-name HE-to-LAN rule 1 state related enable
set firewall ipv6-name HE-to-LAN rule 2 action drop
set firewall ipv6-name HE-to-LAN rule 2 state invalid enable
set firewall ipv6-name LAN-to-HE default-action accept
set firewall ipv6-name LAN-to-HE description 'LAN to HE'
set firewall ipv6-name LAN-to-HE rule 1 action accept
set firewall ipv6-name LAN-to-HE rule 1 state established enable
set firewall ipv6-name LAN-to-HE rule 1 state related enable
set firewall ipv6-name LAN-to-HE rule 2 action drop
set firewall ipv6-name LAN-to-HE rule 2 state invalid enable
The first rule-set will drop all incoming IPv6 traffic unless it is related, while the second rule-set will by default accept all traffic. Now we have to assign these rule-sets to the interfaces we have.
Traffic to the router and your IPv6 network
Assign the HE-to-LAN ruleset for forwarded packets on the inbound tunnel interface and and for packets destined for the router itself:
set interfaces tunnel tun0 firewall in ipv6-name HE-to-LAN
set interfaces tunnel tun0 firewall local ipv6-name HE-to-LAN
Traffic from the LAN to the IPv6 internet
This rule-set will allow traffic from the inside to the Internet via IPv6:
set interfaces ethernet eth1 firewall in ipv6-name LAN-to-HE
Congratulations. You are now able to use IPv6! To make sure everything went alright, test your firewall and your general IPv6 connectivity and work towards your 20/20 rating!